todo: Safety reccomendations for recovered batteries such as the hoverboard 18650 packs.
This is work in progress, do not take it as gospel until completed.
Overheating, fire and explosion risks for lithium batteries:
|Battery Fire||Charging will always occur in suitable fire/heatproof containers|
|Over-charging||Charging will always be supervised. Users will apply appropriate voltage/current limits according to battery.|
|Individual cells may be overcharged when connected in series||Balancing circuit will always be used.|
|Batteries in parallel may not charge at the same rate, or unexpected current may flow between batteries.||Batteries will not be charged in parallel unless they are individually monitored.|
|Puncture damage||Batteries will be stored in their appliance or in a designated storage box to protect them. The box will be in a visible location. Plastic “hard-shell” batteries will be preferred where there is a risk of puncture in-situ.|
|High current flows if terminals are shorted||Batteries will be stored with the terminals covered with a cap or electrical tape.|
|High energy density - general risk||Projects that use high capacity batteries will be fitted with isolator switches and fuses.|
The British Radio Car Association and British Model Flying Association both have very good writeups on battery safety and best practice. BRCA also have good documentation on ESC and brushless motor use/safety.
Tim Kerby suggested this RISCAuthority writeup (PDF) as a basis for our Risk Assessment.
Using electric storage batteries safely (PDF), a publication from the HSE.